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Nutrients. 2019 Feb 12;11(2). pii: E373. doi: 10.3390/nu11020373.

The Impact of Low-FODMAPs, Gluten-Free, and Ketogenic Diets on Gut Microbiota Modulation in Pathological Conditions.

Author information

1
Human Microbiome Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy. sofia.reddel@opbg.net.
2
Human Microbiome Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy. lorenza.putignani@opbg.net.
3
Parasitology Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy. lorenza.putignani@opbg.net.
4
Human Microbiome Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy. federica.delchierico@opbg.net.

Abstract

The gut microbiota performs several essential protective, structural, and metabolic functions for host health. The maintenance of a beneficial microbiota requires a homeostatic equilibrium within microbial communities, and between the microorganisms and the host. The gut microbiota composition may be affected by external factors, among them diet habits may be considered most important. In some pathological conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease (CD), or neurological disorders (ND), specific dietary regimens as low-fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs), ketogenic (KD), and gluten-free (GFD) diets are considered therapeutic. These kinds of diets are characterized by a reduction or exclusion of a specific nutrient from the entire dietary pattern. Despite these alimentary regimens showing beneficial effects on disease symptoms, they can affect microbiota composition, especially if they are protracted for a long time. To date, only a few studies have reported the effects of these diets on gut microbiota. In this review, we discuss the effects of low-FODMAPs, KD, and GFD on gut microbiota modulation in pathological conditions, advancing the possibility of depicting a balanced diet and developing personalized dietary intervention protocols.

KEYWORDS:

dietary patterns; gluten-free diet; ketogenic diet; low-FODMAPs diet; microbiota

PMID:
30759766
DOI:
10.3390/nu11020373
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