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J Nutr. 2019 Mar 1;149(3):422-431. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy291.

Meals with Similar Fat Content from Different Dairy Products Induce Different Postprandial Triglyceride Responses in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Cross-Over Trial.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
2
Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
3
TINE SA, Centre for Research and Development, Oslo, Norway.
4
Research Unit of Biomedicine, and Biocenter of Oulu, Oulu University, Oulu University Hospital and Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
5
Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
6
Oslo Center for Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Postprandial lipemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dairy products differ in nutrient content and food matrix, and little is known about how different dairy products affect postprandial triglyceride (TG) concentrations.

OBJECTIVE:

We investigated the effect of meals with similar amounts of fat from different dairy products on postprandial TG concentrations over 6 h in healthy adults.

METHODS:

A randomized controlled cross-over study was performed on 47 subjects (30% men), with median (25th-75th percentile) age of 32 (25-46) y and body mass index of 23.6 (21.0-25.8) kg/m2. Meals included 1 of butter, cheese, whipped cream, or sour cream, corresponding to 45 g of fat (approximately 60 energy%). Serum concentrations of TGs (primary outcome), and total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol), insulin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, and plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (secondary outcomes) were measured before the meal and 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially. Incremental AUC (iAUC) was calculated for the responses, and data were analyzed using a linear mixed model.

RESULTS:

Sour cream induced a 61% larger TG-iAUC0-6 h compared to whipped cream (P < 0.001), a 53% larger TG-iAUC0-6 h compared to butter (P < 0.001), and a 23% larger TG-iAUC0-6 h compared to cheese (P = 0.05). No differences in TG-iAUC0-6 h between the other meals were observed. Intake of sour cream induced a larger HDL cholesterol-iAUC0-6 h compared to cheese (P = 0.01). Intake of cheese induced a 124% larger insulin iAUC0-6 h compared to butter (P = 0.006). No other meal effects were observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

High-fat meals containing similar amount of fat from different dairy products induce different postprandial effects on serum TGs, HDL cholesterol, and insulin in healthy adults. The potential mechanisms and clinical impact of our findings remain to be further elucidated. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02836106.

KEYWORDS:

HDL cholesterol; butter; cheese; cream; fermentation; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide; insulin; non-esterified fatty acids; sour cream; triglycerides

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