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Sci Signal. 2019 Feb 12;12(568). pii: eaau9216. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aau9216.

Inflammation, necrosis, and the kinase RIP3 are key mediators of AAG-dependent alkylation-induced retinal degeneration.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
2
Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
3
Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. lsamson@mit.edu.
4
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
5
David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Abstract

DNA-alkylating agents are commonly used to kill cancer cells, but the base excision repair (BER) pathway they trigger can also produce toxic intermediates that cause tissue damage, such as retinal degeneration (RD). Apoptosis, a process of programmed cell death, is assumed to be the main mechanism of this alkylation-induced photoreceptor (PR) cell death in RD. Here, we studied the involvement of necroptosis (another programmed cell death process) and inflammation in alkylation-induced RD. Male mice exposed to a methylating agent exhibited a reduced number of PR cell rows, active gliosis, and cytokine induction and macrophage infiltration in the retina. Dying PRs exhibited a necrotic morphology, increased 8-hydroxyguanosine abundance (an oxidative damage marker), and overexpression of the necroptosis-associated genes Rip1 and Rip3 The activity of PARP1, which mediates BER, cell death, and inflammation, was increased in PR cells and associated with the release of proinflammatory chemokine HMGB1 from PR nuclei. Mice lacking the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 exhibited more severe RD, whereas deficiency of RIP3 (also known as RIPK3) conferred partial protection. Female mice were partially protected from alkylation-induced RD, showing reduced necroptosis and inflammation compared to males. PRs in mice lacking the BER-initiating DNA glycosylase AAG did not exhibit alkylation-induced necroptosis or inflammation. Our findings show that AAG-initiated BER at alkylated DNA bases induces sex-dependent RD primarily by triggering necroptosis and activating an inflammatory response that amplifies the original damage and, furthermore, reveal new potential targets to prevent this side effect of chemotherapy.

PMID:
30755477
DOI:
10.1126/scisignal.aau9216

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