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Heart. 2019 Feb 12. pii: heartjnl-2018-314269. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2018-314269. [Epub ahead of print]

Left ventricular mechanical dispersion predicts arrhythmic risk in mitral valve prolapse.

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1
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Bileaflet mitral valve prolapse (MVP) with either focal or diffuse myocardial fibrosis has been linked to ventricular arrhythmia and/or sudden cardiac arrest. Left ventricular (LV) mechanical dispersion by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a measure of heterogeneity of ventricular contraction previously associated with myocardial fibrosis. The aim of this study is to determine whether mechanical dispersion can identify MVP at higher arrhythmic risk.

METHODS:

We identified 32 consecutive arrhythmic MVPs (A-MVP) with a history of complex ventricular ectopy on Holter/event monitor (n=23) or defibrillator placement (n=9) along with 27 MVPs without arrhythmic complications (NA-MVP) and 39 controls. STE was performed to calculate global longitudinal strain (GLS) as the average peak longitudinal strain from an 18-segment LV model and mechanical dispersion as the SD of the time to peak strain of each segment.

RESULTS:

MVPs had significantly higher mechanical dispersion compared with controls (52 vs 42 ms, p=0.005) despite similar LV ejection fraction (62% vs 63%, p=0.42) and GLS (-19.7 vs -21, p=0.045). A-MVP and NA-MVP had similar demographics, LV ejection fraction and GLS (all p>0.05). A-MVP had more bileaflet prolapse (69% vs 44%, p=0.031) with a similar degree of mitral regurgitation (mostly trace or mild in both groups) (p>0.05). A-MVP exhibited greater mechanical dispersion when compared with NA-MVP (59 vs 43 ms, p=0.0002). Mechanical dispersion was the only significant predictor of arrhythmic risk on multivariate analysis (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11, p=0.006).

CONCLUSIONS:

STE-derived mechanical dispersion may help identify MVP patients at higher arrhythmic risk.

KEYWORDS:

cardiac arrest; echocardiography; mitral regurgitation; valvular heart disease; ventricular tachycardia

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