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Haemophilia. 2019 Feb 12. doi: 10.1111/hae.13691. [Epub ahead of print]

Low endoscopy bleeding risk in patients with congenital bleeding disorders.

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Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Internal Medicine, Hôpital de la Tour and University of Geneva, Meyrin, Switzerland.
Service de gastroentérologie et d'hépatologie, Département des spécialités de Médecine, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland.
Division of Hematology, McGill University Health Centre, Quebec, Canada.
Division of Gastroenterology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.



Haemophilia A and haemophilia B, von Willebrand disease (VWD), factor VII deficiency and factor XI deficiency are congenital bleeding disorders predisposing to bleeding during invasive procedures. The ageing population of people with congenital bleeding disorders will likely increasingly require gastrointestinal endoscopy. The bleeding risk postgastrointestinal endoscopy and optimal prophylactic treatment regimens are not well described.


We performed a retrospective chart review at the McGill University Health Centre. Adult patients with haemophilia A or B, VWD, FVII deficiency and FXI deficiency who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures were included. Bleeding prophylaxis included combinations of plasma-derived factor (VWD) or recombinant factor (haemophilia A and haemophilia B), desmopressin and/or tranexamic acid. Our primary outcome was the 72-hour postendoscopy bleeding rate.


One hundred and four endoscopies were performed in 48 patients. Haemophilia A (45.3% of endoscopies) was the most common bleeding disorder, followed by VWD (38.5%), FXI deficiency (8.7%), haemophilia B (4.8%) and FVII deficiency (2.9%). All patients were reviewed by the Haemophilia Treatment Center with peri-procedure treatment protocols put in place as required. The overall 72-hour bleeding rate was 0.96%, confidence interval (CI) 95% (0.17%-5.25%). The colonoscopic postpolypectomy bleeding rate was 1/21 (4.8%, CI 95% (0.9%-22.7%)) in comparison with the general population rate of 0.3%-10% for high-risk endoscopy (including colonoscopic polypectomy).


To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest study describing patients with inherited bleeding disorders undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. The bleeding risk is not significantly higher to the general population when haemostatically managed by a team experienced in bleeding disorders.


congenital bleeding disorders; gastrointestinal endoscopy; gastrointestinal haemorrhage; haemophilia; rare inherited bleeding disorders; von Willebrand disease


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