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J Forensic Dent Sci. 2018 May-Aug;10(2):61-66. doi: 10.4103/jfo.jfds_55_17.

Sex determination in forensic identification, a review.

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Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Yogita Dental College, Khed, Maharashtra, India.
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Dental College, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.


Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. It is an investigative aspect of dentistry that analyzes dental evidence for human identification. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology, and it is important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters, crime investigations, and ethnic studies. Determination of sex/gender using skeletal remains presents a great problem to forensic experts, especially when only fragments of body are recovered. Forensic odontologist can assist other experts to determine the sex of the remains using teeth and skull traits. Various features of teeth such as morphology, crown size, and root length are characteristics for male and female sexes. There are also differences in the skull pattern and skull traits of two sexes. These will help forensic odontologists to identify the sex of the remains. The library dissertation contents and several articles and books were electronically searched in Google using the keywords "sex determination," "forensic dentistry," "sex determination in forensic dentistry." The contents were screened between 1950 and 2015 by going through the title and abstracts and full-text reading. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the different methods of sex determination.


Amelogenin; canine dimorphism; cheiloscopy; forensic odontology; polymerase chain reaction; rugoscopy; sex determination

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