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Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2019;95(2):75-85. doi: 10.2183/pjab.95.007.

Dynamics of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase protein DYNAMO2 correlates with the changes in the global GTP level during the cell cycle of Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

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Division of Organelle Homeostasis, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University.
Department of Cell Biology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University.
Institute of Technology, Hiroshima College.
Department of Chemical and Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Japan Women's University.


GTP is an essential source of energy that supports a large array of cellular mechanochemical structures ranging from protein synthesis machinery to cytoskeletal apparatus for maintaining the cell cycle. However, GTP regulation during the cell cycle has been difficult to investigate because of heterogenous levels of GTP in asynchronous cell cycles and genetic redundancy of the GTP-generating enzymes. Here, in the unicellular red algae Cyanidioschyzon merolae, we demonstrated that the ATP-GTP-converting enzyme DYNAMO2 is an essential regulator of global GTP levels during the cell cycle. The cell cycle of C. merolae can be highly synchronized by light/dark stimulations to examine GTP levels at desired time points. Importantly, the genome of C. merolae encodes only two isoforms of the ATP-GTP-converting enzyme, namely DYNAMO1 and DYNAMO2. DYNAMO1 regulates organelle divisions, whereas DYNAMO2 is entirely localized in the cytoplasm. DYNAMO2 protein levels increase during the S-M phases, and changes in GTP levels are correlated with these DYNAMO2 protein levels. These results indicate that DYNAMO2 is a potential regulator of global GTP levels during the cell cycle.


Cyanidioschyzon merolae; cell cycle; global GTP level; nucleoside diphosphate kinase

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