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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Feb 7. pii: S0002-9378(19)30289-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.01.235. [Epub ahead of print]

Prediction of imminent preeclampsia at 35-37 weeks gestation.

Author information

1
Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King's College, London, UK.
2
Institute of Health Research, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.
3
Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, King's College, London, UK. Electronic address: kypros@fetalmedicine.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In the weeks preceding the clinical onset of preeclampsia, the maternal serum level of the angiogenic placental growth factor is decreased and that of the antiangiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 is increased. Women presenting at specialist clinics with signs or symptoms of hypertensive disorders have been stratified according to concentrations of placental growth factor or the ratio of concentrations of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and placental growth factor to determine clinical management for the subsequent 1-4 weeks. An alternative approach for the prediction of preeclampsia is use of the competing risks model, a Bayes' theorem based method, to derive patient-specific risk for preeclampsia by various combinations of maternal characteristics and medical history with multiples of the median values of biomarkers.

OBJECTIVE:

The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of screening for delivery with preeclampsia at ≤2 and ≤4 weeks after assessment at 35+0-36+6 weeks gestation between the use of percentile cut-offs in placental growth factor alone or the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor ratio and the competing risks model.

STUDY DESIGN:

This was a prospective observational study in women who attended a routine hospital visit at 35+0-36+6 weeks gestation in 2 maternity hospitals in England. The visits included the recording of maternal demographic characteristics and medical history and the measurement of serum placental growth factor and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and mean arterial pressure. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were used to compare the predictive performance for preeclampsia with delivery at ≤2 and ≤4 weeks from assessment of screening by placental growth factor alone and the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor ratio with that of a previously developed competing risks model with a combination of maternal factors, placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and mean arterial pressure (triple test).

RESULTS:

First, the study population of 15,247 pregnancies included 326 pregnancies (2.1%) that subsequently experienced preeclampsia. Second, in the screening for delivery with preeclampsia at ≤2 and ≤4 weeks from assessment, the performance of the triple test was superior to that of placental growth factor alone or the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor ratio. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curves for preeclampsia at ≤2 weeks in screening by the triple test (0.975; 95% confidence interval, 0.964-0.985) was higher than that of placental growth factor alone (0.900; 95% confidence interval, 0.866-0.935; P<.0001) and the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor ratio (0.932; 95% confidence interval, 0.904-0.960; P=.0001). Similarly, the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves for preeclampsia at ≤4 weeks in screening by the triple test (0.907; 95% confidence interval, 0.886-0.928) was higher than that of placental growth factor alone (0.827; 95% confidence interval, 0.800-0.854; P<.0001) or the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor ratio (0.857; 95% confidence interval, 0.830-0.883; P<.0001). Third, at most, screen-positive rates of 2-30% the detection rate of delivery with preeclampsia at ≤2 and ≤4 weeks that was achieved by the triple test was approximately 10% higher than that of the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor ratio and 20% higher than that of placental growth factor alone; the negative predictive value was similar for the 3 tests.

CONCLUSION:

At 35+0-36+6 weeks gestation, the performance of screening for imminent delivery with preeclampsia by the competing risks model is superior to that of placental growth factor alone or the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor ratio.

KEYWORDS:

biomarker; competing risks model; mean arterial pressure; placental growth factor; preeclampsia; screening; soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1; third trimester

PMID:
30738886
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajog.2019.01.235

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