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J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2019 Feb 8:1-5. doi: 10.3171/2018.11.PEDS18449. [Epub ahead of print]

Neurosurgical treatment of pediatric pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas: long-term follow-up of a single-institution, consecutive series of 12 patients.

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Departments of1Neurosurgery.
6Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.
4Pediatrics, and.
5Radiology, Oslo University Hospital; and.


OBJECTIVEThe authors conducted a study to delineate the long-term results of the surgical treatment of pediatric pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs).METHODSAll consecutive children and adolescents (0-20 years) who underwent primary tumor resection for a PXA during the years 1972-2015 were included in this retrospective study on surgical morbidity, mortality rate, academic achievement, and/or work participation. Gross motor function and activities of daily living were scored according to the Barthel Index.RESULTSOf the 12 patients, 8 patients were in the 1st decade of life and 4 in the 2nd. The male/female ratio was 6:6. No patient was lost to follow-up. One patient presented with severe progressive tumor disease and died within 3 months after repeated resection. Another child died 3 days following a second surgical procedure involving gross-total resection (GTR) 8 years after the initial operation. The other 10 patients were alive at the latest follow-up when they reached the median age of 34 years (range 11-60 years). The median follow-up duration was 22 years (range 2-41 years). Barthel Index score was 100 in all 10 survivors. A total 18 tumor resections were performed. Five patients underwent a second tumor resection after MRI/CT confirmed recurrent tumor disease, from 6 months up to 17 years after the initial operation. Only one of our patients received adjuvant therapy: a 19-year-old male who underwent resection (GTR) for a right-sided temporal tumor in 1976. This particular tumor was originally classified as astrocytoma WHO grade IV, and postoperative radiotherapy (54 Gy) was given. The histology was reclassified to that of a PXA. Seven of 8 children whose primary tumor resection was performed more than 20 years ago are alive as of this writing-i.e., 88% observed 20-year survival. These are long-term survivors with good clinical function and all are in full- or part-time work.CONCLUSIONSPediatric patients with PXA can be treated with resection alone with rewarding results. Recurrences are not uncommon, but repeated surgery is well tolerated and should be considered in low-grade cases before adjuvant therapy is implemented. Follow-up including repeated MRI is important during the first postoperative years, since individual patients may have a more aggressive tumor course.


ADL = activities of daily living; GTR = gross-total resection; ICP = intracranial pressure; PXA = pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma; STR = subtotal resection; long-term results; oncology; pediatric neurosurgery; pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma


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