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J Adolesc. 2019 Feb;71:150-161. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.11.009. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

School-based early intervention for anxiety and depression in older adolescents: A feasibility randomised controlled trial of a self-referral stress management workshop programme ("DISCOVER").

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK. Electronic address: june.brown@kcl.ac.uk.
2
Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK.
3
Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK.
4
Southwark CAMHS Clinical Academic Group, South London & Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Mapother House, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AZ, UK.
5
Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK; School of Psychology, Pevensey Building, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Schools may provide a convenient intervention setting for young people with mental health problems generally, as well as for those who are unwilling or unable to access traditional clinic-based mental health services. However, few studies focus on older adolescents, or those from ethnic minority groups. This study aims to assess the feasibility of a brief school-based psychological intervention for self-referred adolescents aged 16-19 years.

METHODS:

A two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 10 inner-city schools with block randomisation of schools. The intervention comprised a one-day CBT Stress management programme with telephone follow-up (DISCOVER) delivered by 3 psychology (2 clinical and 1 assistant) staff. The control was a waitlist condition. Primary outcomes were depression (Mood and Feelings Questionnaire; MFQ) and anxiety (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale; RCADS-anxiety subscale). Data were analysed descriptively and quantitatively to assess feasibility.

RESULTS:

155 students were enrolled and 142 (91.6%) followed up after 3 months. Participants were predominantly female (81%) and the mean age was 17.3 years, with equal numbers enrolled from Year 12 and Year 13. Over half (55%) of students were from ethnic minority groups. Intraclass correlations were low. Variance estimates were calculated to estimate the sample size for a full RCT. Preliminary outcomes were encouraging, with reductions in depression (d = 0.27 CI-0.49 to -0.04, p = 0.021) and anxiety (d = 0.25, CI-0.46 to -0.04, p = 0.018) at follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS:

Results support the feasibility of a school-based, self-referral intervention with older adolescents in a definitive future full-scale trial (Trial no. ISRCTN88636606).

KEYWORDS:

Adolescence; Anxiety; Depression; Open-access; Schools; Self-referral

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