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Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1920:247-263. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9009-2_14.

Manipulation of Developmental Function in Turtles with Notes on Alligators.

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Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO, USA.
Biology Department, Millersville University, Millersville, PA, USA.
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS, USA.


Reptiles have great taxonomic diversity that is reflected in their morphology, ecology, physiology, modes of reproduction, and development. Interest in comparative and evolutionary developmental biology makes protocols for the study of reptile embryos invaluable resources. The relatively large size, seasonal breeding, and long gestation times of turtles epitomize the challenges faced by the developmental biologist. We describe protocols for the preparation of turtle embryos for ex ovo culture, electroporation, in situ hybridization, and microcomputed tomography. Because these protocols have been adapted and optimized from methods used for frog, chick, and mouse embryos, it is likely that they could be used for other reptilian species. Notes are included for alligator embryos where appropriate.


Alligator; Electroporation; Embryology; Ex ovo culture; In situ hybridization; Microcomputed tomography; Turtle

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