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PLoS One. 2019 Feb 8;14(2):e0212116. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212116. eCollection 2019.

Inadequate maternal weight gain in the third trimester increases the risk of intrauterine growth restriction in rural Bangladesh.

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1
Nutrition and Clinical Services Division, icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To estimate the effect of inadequate maternal weight gain in the third trimester on the risk of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in rural Bangladesh.

METHODS:

This study analyzed data from 1,463 mother-infant pairs in Matlab, Bangladesh which were available through the electronic databases of Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System and Matlab hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b). All the mothers were admitted to Matlab hospital for childbirth from January 2012 to December 2014, and they had singleton live births at term. Third-trimester weight gain (kg) was calculated by subtracting the estimated weight at the end of the second trimester from the weight taken before childbirth. Inadequate third-trimester weight gain was defined as 4 kg or less irrespective of pre-gravid nutritional status. IUGR was defined as a birth weight below 2500 g in full-term newborns (LBW-Term), and a birth weight for gestational age and infant sex less than the 10th percentile (SGA-10th) and 2 standard deviations below the mean birth weight (SGA-2SD) based on the international newborn standards from the INTERGROWTH-21st project. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to determine the independent effect of inadequate weight gain in the third trimester on the risk of IUGR.

RESULTS:

A total of 824 (56.3%) women experienced inadequate weight gain in the third trimester of pregnancy. In this study, 215 (14.7%), 573 (39.2%) and 220 (15.0%) infants were born as LBW-Term, SGA-10th and SGA-2SD, respectively. In the multivariable logistic regression models, compared to adequate weight gain in the third-trimester, the odds ratios (OR) for LBW-Term, SGA-10th and SGA-2SD for inadequate weight gain were 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3, 2.5; p < 0.001), 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.8; p = 0.002) and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3, 2.4; p = 0.001), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Both inadequate third-trimester weight gain and IUGR are prevailing public health concerns in rural Bangladesh. Inadequate weight gain in the third trimester substantially increased the risk of IUGR. Public health programs focusing on the promotion of adequate weight gain in the third trimester of pregnancy with an ultimate aim to decrease IUGR should be implemented.

PMID:
30735555
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0212116
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Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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