Send to

Choose Destination
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019 Feb 8. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1575573. [Epub ahead of print]

Reduction of influenza A(H3N2)-associated symptoms by influenza vaccination in school aged-children during the 2014-2015 winter season dominated by mismatched H3N2 viruses.

Duan W1,2, Zhang L1,2, Wu S1,2, Ma C1,2, Sun Y1,2, Zhang M1,2, Zhang Y1,2, Zhang X1,2, Wang Q1,2, Yang P1,2,3.

Author information

a Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control , Beijing , China.
b Beijing Research Center for Preventive Medicine , Beijing , China.
c School of Public Health, Capital Medical University , Beijing , China.


Background Little is known about the vaccine effectiveness (VE) in attenuating the influenza-associated symptoms in children during the 2014-2015 influenza season in Beijing, China, in which there was a mismatch between the vaccine and circulating strain. Methods This study included 210 laboratory-confirmed influenza cases among children, who were enrolled in 2014, from November 1 to December 31. Standard demographic information and clinical symptoms were recorded. Influenza vaccination was confirmed via a vaccination registry. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to estimate the odds of presenting with clinical symptoms among vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, adjusting for sex, age, area, BMI level, and chronic conditions. Results Among the 210 laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, 170 (81.0%) presented with fever ≥38°C. The other most common symptoms were cough (78.1%), sore throat (46.7%), nasal congestion/rhinorrhea (38.6%), headache (34.8%), fatigue (24.8%) and myalgia/arthralgia (16.2%). Approximately 9.0% (19/210) exhibited nausea/vomiting, and 2.4% (5/210) exhibited diarrhea/abdominal pain. Respiratory complications occurred in 5.7% (12/210) of the confirmed influenza cases. In 210 laboratory-confirmed cases, univariate and multivariate conducted after adjusted for the aforementioned characteristics suggested that the odds of fever ≥ 38°C were significantly reduced in vaccinated children (odds ratio [OR]: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.19-0.93; P = 0.033). Conclusions Influenza vaccination may reduce the clinical symptoms of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases potentially even in the mismatching season.


Influenza; children; outbreak; school; symptoms; vaccination

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Taylor & Francis
Loading ...
Support Center