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Inhal Toxicol. 2019 Feb 8:1-8. doi: 10.1080/08958378.2019.1569182. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of the impact of waterpipe tobacco smoke exposure on the activity and expression of rat hepatic CYP450: a pharmacokinetic study.

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a Department of Clinical Pharmacy Faculty of Pharmacy , Jordan University of Science and Technology , Irbid , Jordan.
b Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy , The University of Jordan , Amman , Jordan.
c Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences , Jordan University of Science and Technology , Irbid , Jordan.


Waterpipe smoke contains many toxic constituents that can alter drug pharmacokinetics. This study assessed the effect of waterpipe smoke exposure on the activity and expression of CYP450 enzymes in rats. Animals (n = 10/group) were exposed to either waterpipe smoke or side-stream cigarette smoke for 1 h/day (6 days/week) for 31 days, or fresh air (control). An intragastric cocktail solution containing three probe drugs, phenacetin, chlorzoxazone and testosterone was administered to assess the activity of CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A, respectively. Serum concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The mRNA expression of hepatic enzymes was also quantified. Waterpipe and cigarette smoke exposure did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin, chlorzoxazone and testosterone. For example, the clearance and drug exposure values were comparable among groups for all probe drugs. Additionally, there was no significant effect of waterpipe and cigarette smoke on mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A2. The results demonstrate that waterpipe smoke exposure had no effect on the functional expression of three key CYP450 isoforms in rats. Future research is required with longer exposure periods to waterpipe smoke. Such work serves to enhance current understanding of effect of waterpipe smoke exposure on pharmacokinetics.


CYP450; Waterpipe smoke; gene expression; pharmacokinetics; rat

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