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Eur J Nutr. 2019 Feb 8. doi: 10.1007/s00394-019-01913-w. [Epub ahead of print]

Similarities and differences of dietary and other determinants of iodine status in pregnant women from three European birth cohorts.

Dineva M1, Rayman MP1, Levie D2,3,4,5,6,7, Guxens M4,5,6,7, Peeters RP3, Vioque J7,8, González L9,10, Espada M11,12, Ibarluzea J7,12,13,14, Sunyer J5,6,7,15, Korevaar TIM2,3, Bath SC16.

Author information

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK.
2
The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Centre for Thyroid Diseases, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus University Medical Centre-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
5
ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain.
6
Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
7
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
8
Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Miguel Hernández University, ISABIAL-FISABIO, Alicante, Spain.
9
Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.
10
Predepartamental Unit of Medicine, University Jaume I, Castelló, Spain.
11
Departamento de Salud del Gobierno Vasco, Public Health Laboratory of Bilbao, Basque Government, Derio, Spain.
12
BIODONOSTIA Health Research Institute, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.
13
Departamento de Salud del Gobierno Vasco, Subdirección de Salud Pública de Guipúzcoa, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.
14
Facultad de Psicología, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.
15
Hospital del Mar Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain.
16
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK. s.bath@surrey.ac.uk.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

As a component of thyroid hormones, adequate iodine intake is essential during pregnancy for fetal neurodevelopment. Across Europe, iodine deficiency is common in pregnancy, but data are lacking on the predictors of iodine status at this life stage. We, therefore, aimed to explore determinants of iodine status during pregnancy in three European populations of differing iodine status.

METHODS:

Data were from 6566 pregnant women from three prospective population-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom (ALSPAC, n = 2852), Spain (INMA, n = 1460), and The Netherlands (Generation R, n = 2254). Urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat, µg/g) was measured in spot-urine samples in pregnancy (≤ 18-weeks gestation). Maternal dietary intake, categorised by food groups (g/day), was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Multivariable regression models used dietary variables (energy-adjusted) and maternal characteristics as predictors of iodine status.

RESULTS:

Median UI/Creat in pregnant women of ALSPAC, INMA, and Generation R was 121, 151, and 210 µg/g, respectively. Maternal age was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts (P < 0.001), while UI/Creat varied by ethnicity only in Generation R (P < 0.05). Of the dietary predictors, intake of milk and dairy products (per 100 g/day) was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts [ALSPAC (B = 3.73, P < 0.0001); INMA (B = 6.92, P = 0.002); Generation R (B = 2.34, P = 0.001)]. Cohort-specific dietary determinants positively associated with UI/Creat included fish and shellfish in ALSPAC and INMA, and eggs and cereal/cereal products in Generation R.

CONCLUSIONS:

The cohort-specific dietary determinants probably reflect not only dietary habits but iodine-fortification policies; hence, public-health interventions to improve iodine intake in pregnancy need to be country-specific.

KEYWORDS:

ALSPAC; Determinants; Diet; Iodine; Milk and dairy products; Pregnancy

PMID:
30734058
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-019-01913-w

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