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PLoS One. 2019 Feb 7;14(2):e0211822. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211822. eCollection 2019.

TB-diabetes co-morbidity in Ghana: The importance of Mycobacterium africanum infection.

Author information

1
Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon Accra, Ghana.
2
West African Centre for Cell Biology of Infectious Pathogens, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
3
Department of Chest Diseases, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana.
4
Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
5
University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) but little is known on TB-Diabetes Mellitus (TBDM) co-morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa.

METHODS:

Consecutive TB cases registered at a tertiary facility in Ghana were recruited from September 2012 to April 2016 and screened for DM using random blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. TB patients were tested for other clinical parameters including HIV co-infection and TB lesion location. Mycobacterial isolates obtained from collected sputum samples were characterized by standard methods. Associations between TBDM patients' epidemiological as well as microbiological variables were assessed.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of DM at time of diagnosis among 2990 enrolled TB cases was 9.4% (282/2990). TBDM cases were significantly associated with weight loss, poor appetite, night sweat and fatigue (p<0.001) and were more likely (p<0.001) to have lower lung cavitation 85.8% (242/282) compared to TB Non-Diabetic (TBNDM) patients 3.3% (90/2708). We observed 22.3% (63/282) treatment failures among TBDM patients compared to 3.8% (102/2708) among TBNDM patients (p<0.001). We found no significant difference in the TBDM burden attributed by M. tuberculosis sensu stricto (Mtbss) and Mycobacterium africanum (Maf) and (Mtbss; 176/1836, 9.6% and Maf; 53/468, 11.3%, p = 0.2612). We found that diabetic individuals were suggestively likely to present with TB caused by M. africanum Lineage 6 as opposed to Mtbss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-2.42, p = 0.072).

CONCLUSION:

Our findings confirms the importance of screening for diabetes during TB diagnosis and highlights the association between genetic diversity and diabetes. in Ghana.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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