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Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 17;25(4). doi: 10.3201/eid2504.180779. [Epub ahead of print]

Human-Origin Influenza A(H3N2) Reassortant Viruses in Swine, Southeast Mexico.

Abstract

The genetic diversity of influenza A viruses circulating in swine in Mexico complicates control efforts in animals and presents a threat to humans, as shown by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. To describe evolution of swine influenza A viruses in Mexico and evaluate strains for vaccine development, we sequenced the genomes of 59 viruses and performed antigenic cartography on strains from 5 regions. We found that genetic and antigenic diversity were particularly high in southeast Mexico because of repeated introductions of viruses from humans and swine in other regions in Mexico. We identified novel reassortant H3N2 viruses with genome segments derived from 2 different viruses that were independently introduced from humans into swine: pandemic H1N1 viruses and seasonal H3N2 viruses. The Mexico swine viruses are antigenically distinct from US swine lineages. Protection against these viruses is unlikely to be afforded by US virus vaccines and would require development of new vaccines specifically targeting these diverse strains.

KEYWORDS:

Mexico; antigenic cartography; evolution; human origin; influenza; influenza A virus; influenza virus; pandemic; phylogenetic analysis; phylogeography; reassortant influenza viruses; reassortment; respiratory infections; reverse zoonosis; swine; vaccine; viruses; zoonoses

PMID:
30730827
DOI:
10.3201/eid2504.180779
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