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J Craniofac Surg. 2019 Feb 2. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005190. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of Electronic Cigarettes on the Inner Mucosa of the Craniofacial Region.

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ENT Clinics, Kumluca State Hospital, Antalya.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Acibadem University, Istanbul.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical Faculty, Kirikkale University, Kirikkale.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical Faculty, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey.



The aim of this paper is to investigate electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) from the otorhinolaryngologic point of view.


The authors searched Central Database of Kirikkale University Library, Google, PubMed, and Proquest and Google Scholar.


An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is a battery-powered device that vaporizes a liquid, generally including nicotine. Nowadays, e-cigarettes are used for smoking cessation or to reduce the consumption of conventional tobacco cigarettes. First generation e-cigarette devices were similar to conventional tobacco cigarettes in terms of shape and size and expressed as "cigalikes." Differently from traditional cigarettes in which tobacco is burned to generate smoke, electronic cigarettes contain a tank filled with liquid. It was found that e-cigarette liquids contained different types of chemical compounds which were either previously known carcinogens or probably prove to be carcinogenic to humans in the near future. It seems that the use of electronic cigarette does not harm the oral cells. However, the use of e-cigarette for 4 weeks led to metaplasia and hyperplasia of the laryngeal mucosa in rats. Furthermore, e-ciagarettes produce some adverse effects on the nasal mucosa, supressing the immune system.


It should not be considered that e-cigarettes are safer unless their effects on the mucosa of the ear, nose, and throat are more precisely clarified.

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