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Med Vet Entomol. 2019 Jun;33(2):269-281. doi: 10.1111/mve.12358. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Molecular identification of bloodmeal sources and trypanosomes in Glossina spp., Tabanus spp. and Stomoxys spp. trapped on cattle farm settlements in southwest Nigeria.

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Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Division of Infection and Pathway Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.
Zhejiang University-University of Edinburgh Joint Institute, Zhejiang University, Haining, China.


The interactions of host, vector and parasite in bovine trypanosomiasis transmission cycles in southwest Nigeria are not yet well understood. Trypanosoma (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) species infection prevalences and bloodmeal sources were determined in transmitting vectors of the genera Glossina (Diptera: Glossinidae), Tabanus (Diptera: Tabanidae) and Stomoxys (Diptera: Muscidae) collected using Nzi traps in cattle settlements in southwest Nigeria. Sequenced cytochrome B mitochondrial DNA segments obtained from vector digestive tracts identified bloodmeal sources from eight host species, namely human, cattle, hippopotamus, giraffe, gazelle, spotted hyena, long-tailed rat and one unidentified species. Overall, 71.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 63.0-78.1], 33.3% (95% CI 21.9-47.0) and 22.2% (95% CI 16.2-29.9), respectively, of Glossina, Tabanus and Stomoxys flies were positive for trypanosomes. The observed trypanosome species were Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma simiae and Trypanosoma godfreyi. Trypanosome DNA was more prevalent in tsetse (34.8% Tr. vivax, 51.1% Tr. b. brucei, 5.2% Tr. congolense, 4.4% Tr. simiae and 24.4% mixed infections) than in other flies and the main determinants in all flies were seasonal factors and host availability. To the best of the present group's knowledge, this is the first report of Trypanosoma species in Tabanus and Stomoxys flies in Nigeria. It indicates that vector control programmes should always consider biting flies along with tsetse flies in the control of human and animal trypanosomiasis.


Glossina; Stomoxys; Tabanus; bloodmeal; cattle; southwest Nigeria; trypanosomes


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