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Ann Afr Med. 2019 Jan-Mar;18(1):30-35. doi: 10.4103/aam.aam_10_18.

Spectrum of high risk human papillomavirus types in women in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Author information

Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.



Infection with oncogenic or high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types acts as carcinogens in the development of cervical cancer.


The aim of the study was to detect the genotypes of some hrHPVs among women attending selected hospitals in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Settings and Design:

Hospital-based and cross-sectional that involved the use of structured questionnaires to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data.

Materials and Methods:

Two hundred and seventy-six cervical scraping samples were screened for both HPV and squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and conventional Pap smear, respectively. Samples positive for HPV antigen and SIL were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the viral type.

Statistical Analysis Used:

Data were analyzed using the frequency procedure of Statistical Analysis System version 9.2, at 0.05 level of significance and 95% confidence interval.


Of the 276 cervical scraping samples, only 24 (8.7%) were positive for HPV antigen, whereas 17 (6.2%) were positive for SIL. When thirty of these positive samples were subjected to PCR, the DNA of hrHPV was detected in 20 (66.6%) of the positive samples. The HPV types detected in the study were 16 (36.7%), 18 (40.0%), 31 (16.7%), and 45 (3.3%).


The findings from this study have shown that there is a high possibility of detecting the DNA of hrHPV in women that are infected with HPV and those that have cervical dysplasia, which points out the possibility of these women developing cervical cancer.


High-risk human papillomavirus; Kaduna state; Nigeria; polymerase chain reaction; women

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