Send to

Choose Destination
Front Med (Lausanne). 2019 Jan 23;5:365. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2018.00365. eCollection 2018.

Tonin Overexpression in Mice Diminishes Sympathetic Autonomic Modulation and Alters Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Response.

Author information

Disciplina de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States.
Departmento de Biofisica, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Divisao de Hipertensao, Escola de Medicina, Instituto do Coracao, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Departamento de Biofisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.


Background: Tonin, a serine-protease that forms Angiotensin II (AngII) from angiotensinogen, is increased in failing human heart samples. Increased blood pressure (BP) and decreased heart rate (HR) variabilities are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Losartan has been used to reduce hypertension and, therefore, lowers the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Determination of tonin's impact on BP and HR variabilities as well as the impact of losartan remain questions to be elucidated. Aim: Evaluation of cardiovascular autonomic profile in transgenic mice overexpressing the rat tonin enzyme TGM'(rton) and the impact of AT1 receptor blocker, losartan. Methods: Male C57BL/6 (WT) and TGM'(rTon) mice were cannulated for recording BP (Windaq, 4 MHz) for 30 min at baseline and 30 min after losartan injection (20 mg/kg). BP and HR variabilities were analyzed in time and frequency domain method. Low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components were identified for sympathetic and parasympathetic modulations analysis. Ang I, AngII, and Ang1-7 were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography method. The total enzymatic activity for AngI, AngII, and Ang1-7 formation was evaluated in the heart and plasma by Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results: At the baseline TGM'(rTon) exhibited higher BP, lower cardiac LF, higher cardiac HF, lower LF/HF, and lower alpha index than wild type (WT). After losartan injection, TGM'(rTon) mice presented an additional decrease in cardiac LF and increase in HF in relation to baseline and WT. In the vasculature, losartan caused decreased in BP and LF of systolic BP in WT mice in relation to its baseline. A similar effect was observed in the BP of TGM'(rTon) mice; however, LF of systolic BP increased compared to baseline. Our data also indicates that AT1R receptor signaling has been altered in TGM'(rTon)mice. Interestingly, the dynamics of the renin-angiotensin system kinetics change, favoring production of Ang1-7. Conclusion: Autonomic evaluation of TGM'(rTon) mice indicates an unclear prognosis for diseases that affect the heart. HR variability in TGM'(rTon) mice indicates high risk of morbidity, and sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation indicate low risk of morbidity. The low risk of morbidity could be the biased production of Ang1-7 in the heart and circulation; however, the altered response of AT1R in the TGM'(rTon) remains to be elucidated, as well aswhether that signaling is pro-protection or pro-pathology.


AT1R; angiotensin 1-7; angiotensin II; autonomic control; losartan; renin angiotensin system; serino protease; tonin

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Frontiers Media SA Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center