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Aust N Z J Public Health. 2019 Feb 6. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12871. [Epub ahead of print]

Dual use of electronic cigarettes and tobacco in New Zealand from a nationally representative sample.

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Research and Evaluation Unit, Health Promotion Agency, Wellington, New Zealand.



There is strong interest in the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) globally. Not much is known about the dual use of e-cigarettes and combustible tobacco cigarettes, or if there are demographic differences among dual users and e-cigarette only users. This paper reports on the demographics of dual users and e-cigarette only users in New Zealand in a nationally representative sample.


The Health and Lifestyles Survey (HLS) is a biennial face-to-face in-house survey of New Zealand adults aged 15 years or over. The HLS was completed by 3,854 participants in 2016.


There is clear evidence of significant dual use in the current sample: most current e-cigarette users (63.9%) were dual users. Respondents 45 years and older were twice as likely to be dual users as those aged 15 to 34 years.


The current study found evidence for substantial dual use of e-cigarettes and combustible tobacco cigarettes among adult e-cigarette users, particularly among users aged 45 years and over. Implications for public health: Public health initiatives should provide clear advice that e-cigarettes should be used as a smoking cessation tool and not as a way to allow the consumption of combustible tobacco to continue.


dual use; e-cigarettes; prevalence; tobacco; vaping


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