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Nephron. 2019 Feb 6:1-11. doi: 10.1159/000497117. [Epub ahead of print]

Low Sodium Diet Decreases Stone Formation in Genetic Hypercalciuric Stone-Forming Rats.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USANancy_Krieger@urmc.rochester.edu.
2
Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
3
Litholink Corporation, Laboratory Corporation of America® Holdings, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
4
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Urine (u) calcium (Ca) excretion is directly dependent on dietary sodium (Na) intake leading to the recommendation for Na restriction in hypercalciuric kidney stone formers. However, there is no direct evidence that limiting Na intake will reduce recurrent stone formation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We used genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats, which universally form Ca phosphate (P) kidney stones, fed either a low Na (LNa, 0.05%) or normal Na (NNa, 0.4%) Na diet (D) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6-week intervals. Radiographic analysis for stone formation and bone analyses were done at the conclusion of the study.

RESULTS:

Mean uCa was lower with LNaD than NNaD as was uP and LNaD decreased mean uNa and uChloride. There were no differences in urine supersaturation (SS) with respect to calcium phosphate (CaP) or Ca oxalate (CaOx). However, stone formation was markedly decreased with LNaD by radiographic analysis. The LNaD group had significantly lower femoral anterior-posterior diameter and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), but no change in vertebral trabecular vBMD. There were no differences in the bone formation rate or osteoclastic bone resorption between groups. The LNaD group had significantly lower femoral stiffness; however, the ultimate load and energy to fail was not different.

CONCLUSION:

Thus, a low Na diet reduced uCa and stone formation in GHS rats, even though SS with respect to CaP and CaOx was unchanged and effects on bone were modest. These data, if confirmed in humans, support dietary Na restriction to prevent recurrent Ca nephrolithiasis.

KEYWORDS:

Mineral metabolism; Nephrolithiasis; Sodium

PMID:
30726853
DOI:
10.1159/000497117

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