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Pediatr Pathol. 1988;8(6):571-97.

Achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: the spectrum of chondrogenesis imperfecta. A radiological, ultrasonographic, and histopathologic study of 23 cases.

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Department of Pathology, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


In the classification of lethal osteochondrodysplasias, achondrogenesis and hypochondrogenesis have recently received special attention. We describe 23 cases representing the different subtypes. Within the classical type I (Parenti-Fraccaro) two distinct disorders can be recognized: type IA (Houston-Harris) and type IB (Fraccaro). The classical type II (Langer-Saldino) and hypochondrogenesis represent phenotypic variants of one disorder in which type II is the most severe form and hypochondrogenesis the mildest form, while transitional forms exist. It is likely that a basic defect in cellular function of the chondrocyte results in a deficient cartilage matrix and in disorganized enchondral ossification.

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