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J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2019 Mar;21(3):426-433. doi: 10.1111/jch.13491. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Orthostatic hypertension: From pathophysiology to clinical applications and therapeutic considerations.

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First Department of Cardiology, 'Hippokration' Hospital, University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece.
Department of Cardiology, Helena Venizelou Hospital, Athens, Greece.
2nd Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Hypertension Excellence Centre-ESH, Department of Cardiology, LAIKO General Hospital, Athens, Greece.


Orthostatic hypertension (OHT), that is, sustained increase in blood pressure after standing, is an increasingly recognized cardiovascular disorder having been examined in much fewer studies compared with orthostatic hypotension (OH). However, in both OHT and OH, dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system is considered to be the primary pathophysiological disturbance, while significant associations with essential hypertension have been observed. Although in many studies OHT has been related to subclinical or clinical target organ damage, there is also evidence denying such an association. Because OHT is defined variably across different studies, the comparison of relevant outcomes is at least problematic. Since evidence about OHT treatment is exclusively based on limited non-randomized studies, no specific recommendations have been developed. Therefore, both the prognostic role and the clinical significance of OHT remain largely undefined. The aim of the present review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the definition, diagnosis, pathophysiology, prognostic role and treatment of OHT and highlight potential clinical implications of this underestimated condition.


autonomic nervous system; cardiovascular outcomes; orthostatic hypertension; orthostatic hypotension; target organ damage

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