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Alzheimers Dement (Amst). 2019 Jan 24;11:108-114. doi: 10.1016/j.dadm.2018.12.002. eCollection 2019 Dec.

Quantifying memory deficits in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

Author information

1
Neuropsychology and Cognition Research Group, Research Institute on Health Sciences and Balearic Health Research Institute and IdISBa, Palma, Spain.
2
Department of Psychology, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.
3
Valencia University Clinic Hospital, Valencia, Spain.
4
Dr Peset University Hospital, Valencia, Spain.
5
Department of Physiotherapy and Infirmary, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.
6
Cognitive Neurology Unit, Son Espases University Hospital, Palma, Spain.

Abstract

Introduction:

In the present study, we use the item-specific deficit approach (ISDA), a method for characterizing memory deficits in list-learning, to portray the memory deficits in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).

Methods:

We applied the ISDA to compare memory performance of patients with aMCI and healthy controls in encoding, consolidation, and retrieval using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test.

Results:

The results revealed clear differences in recall performance between patients with aMCI and controls. When analyzing the ISDA deficit indices, the results revealed a prominent encoding deficit, followed by a consolidating deficit. A greater sensitivity for the encoding index confirmed that a difficulty with encoding information plays a major role in explaining the episodic memory deficits experienced by patients with aMCI.

Discussion:

The present study applying the ISDA reveals great sensitivity and specificity of the encoding deficit index when identifying aMCI. As aMCI constitutes a risk factor to develop Alzheimer's disease, the current findings also confirm the need to concentrate on encoding deficits as an early diagnostic sign of cognitive decline.

KEYWORDS:

Encoding deficit; Episodic memory; ISDA method; Neuropsychology; aMCI

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