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Front Vet Sci. 2019 Jan 22;5:347. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00347. eCollection 2018.

Adaptation of Human Influenza Viruses to Swine.

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Department of Population Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.
Virus and Prion Research Unit, USDA-ARS, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA, United States.


A large diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) within the H1N1/N2 and H3N2 subtypes circulates in pigs globally, with different lineages predominating in specific regions of the globe. A common characteristic of the ecology of IAV in swine in different regions is the periodic spillover of human seasonal viruses. Such human viruses resulted in sustained transmission in swine in several countries, leading to the establishment of novel IAV lineages in the swine host and contributing to the genetic and antigenic diversity of influenza observed in pigs. In this review we discuss the frequent occurrence of reverse-zoonosis of IAV from humans to pigs that have contributed to the global viral diversity in swine in a continuous manner, describe host-range factors that may be related to the adaptation of these human-origin viruses to pigs, and how these events could affect the swine industry.


adaptation; host range; human; influenza A virus; interspecies; swine

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