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Vaccine. 2019 Feb 2. pii: S0264-410X(19)30052-0. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.12.071. [Epub ahead of print]

Alphavirus-vectored hemagglutinin subunit vaccine provides partial protection against heterologous challenge in pigs.

Author information

1
Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA, United States.
2
Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA, United States. Electronic address: daniela.rajao@uga.edu.
3
Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.
4
Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA, United States. Electronic address: amy.vincent@ars.usda.gov.

Abstract

Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is an important pathogen in pigs in the United States, in addition to posing a potential risk to humans through zoonotic events. Intervention strategies continue to be explored to better control virus circulation. Improved surveillance efforts has led to significantly increased sequence data available on circulating strains, vastly improving our understanding of the genetic and antigenic diversity of IAV-S. IAV-S in North America is characterized by repeated spillover events of human viruses into pigs followed by genetic and antigenic diversification. An important gap that needs to be addressed is our understanding of the role that various vaccine platforms have on efficacy against antigenically heterologous challenge. Currently licensed vaccines often update their components to adapt to a dynamic antigenic landscape and newly developed technologies continue to be approved. Hence, it remains critical to test the performance of vaccines against challenge with antigenically distinct viruses. We tested the level of protection conferred by an alphavirus-vectored hemagglutinin (HA) subunit vaccine, delivered as a monovalent or bivalent formulation, against challenge with IAV-S. Monovalent alphavirus-vectored HA vaccines provided efficient protection against challenge with viruses with matched and mismatched HA, although in one mismatched HA challenge group there was a trend for reduced protection. A bivalent vaccine, in which two HA's were simultaneously delivered, was effective in producing antibody response against both antigens and provided protection against challenge. The alphavirus platform is a promising new technology available to swine producers to help reduce the burden of disease caused by IAV-S.

KEYWORDS:

Alphavirus; Influenza; Replicon particle; Subunit vaccine

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