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Food Chem. 2019 Jun 15;283:675-687. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.12.118. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Variation in Ceratonia siliqua pod metabolome in context of its different geographical origin, ripening stage and roasting process.

Author information

1
Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr el Aini St., P.B. 11562 Cairo, Egypt; Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences & Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835, Egypt. Electronic address: Mohamed.farag@pharma.cu.edu.eg.
2
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, The British University in Egypt (BUE), 11837, Egypt.
3
Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Dept. Bioorganic Chemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany.
4
Pharmacognosy Department, College of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr el Aini St., P.B. 11562 Cairo, Egypt.
5
Pharmacognosy Group, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala University, Biomedical Centre, Box 574, SE-75 123 Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt.
6
Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Dept. Bioorganic Chemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany; Department of Biochemistry, St. Petersburg State University, 199034, Russia.

Abstract

Carob is a legume tree of a considerable commercial importance for the flavor and sweet industry. In this context, it is cultivated mostly for its pods, which are known for their nutritive value and multiple health benefits. However, metabolite patterns, underlying these properties are still mostly uncharacterized. In this study, the role of geographical origin, ontogenetic changes and thermal processing on the Ceratonia siliqua pod metabolome was assessed by mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics. Thereby, a total of 70 fruits primary metabolites, represented mainly by carbohydrates, organic and amino acids were detected. Analysis of secondary bioactive metabolites assessed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-HR-MS) revealed in total 83 signals. The major signals, most significantly contributing in discrimination of C. siliqua specimens were assigned to tannins and flavonoids. PCA models derived from either UHPLC-MS or GC-MS proved to be powerful tools for discrimination of C. siliqua specimens.

KEYWORDS:

Ceratonia siliqua; Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Metabolomics; Principle component analysis (PCA); Ripening stages; Roasting; Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)

PMID:
30722926
DOI:
10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.12.118
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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