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Digestion. 1988;41(4):185-200.

Histopathological classification of nonantral gastric endocrine growths in man.

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Department of Human Pathology, University of Pavia, Italy.


Recently, the gastric endocrine system has been recognized as the origin of benign and malignant tumors in pernicious anemia. It has also been found that the gastric endocrine cells respond to permanent elevation of serum gastrin levels induced by changes in acid secretion in response to surgical procedures, drug therapy and age. Therefore, a definition of nonantral gastric endocrine hyperplasia (simple or diffuse, linear or chain-forming, micronodular, adenomatoid), dysplasia (enlarging or fusing micronodules, microinvasion, nodular growth) and neoplasia (intramucosal carcinoid, invasive carcinoid) is presented. The individual entities are illustrated, together with the literature discussed and the techniques for their identification presented.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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