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Chemosphere. 2019 Jan 29;222:489-493. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.01.156. [Epub ahead of print]

An assessment of pesticide exposures and land use of honey bees in Virginia.

Author information

1
Center for Fisheries, Aquaculture, and Aquatic Sciences, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA. Electronic address: corie.fulton@siu.edu.
2
Center for Fisheries, Aquaculture, and Aquatic Sciences, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA. Electronic address: khuffhar@siu.edu.
3
Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA. Electronic address: rfell@vt.edu.
4
Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA; Department of Entomology, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634, USA. Electronic address: carlylb@clemson.edu.
5
Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA. Electronic address: jreeve@zoology.siu.edu.
6
Center for Fisheries, Aquaculture, and Aquatic Sciences, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA. Electronic address: mlydy@siu.edu.

Abstract

Large-scale honey bee colony loss threatens pollination services throughout the United States. An increase in anthropogenic pressure may influence the exposure of hives to household and agricultural pesticides. The objective of this survey was to provide an assessment of the risk of exposure to commonly used pesticides to honey bee colonies in Virginia in relation to land use. Adult honey bee, pollen, and wax samples from colonies throughout Virginia were evaluated for pyrethroid, organophosphate, organochlorine, and triazine pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Of the 11 pesticides analyzed, nine were detected in one or more hive matrices. The probability of detecting a pesticide in pollen was less in forests than in pasture, agriculture, or urban landscapes. Coumaphos and fluvalinate were significantly more likely to be detected across all matrices with concentrations in wax as high as 15500 and 6970 ng/g (dry weight), respectively, indicating the need for further research on the potential effects of miticide accumulation in wax to larval and adult bees.

KEYWORDS:

Apis mellifera; Land use; Pesticide; Pollen; Wax

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