Send to

Choose Destination
JAMA. 2019 Feb 5;321(5):484-492. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.21819.

Association of Type 1 Diabetes With Standardized Test Scores of Danish Schoolchildren.

Author information

Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
Department of Economics, Kansas State University, Manhattan.
Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
VIVE-The Danish Center for Social Science Research, Aarhus, Denmark.
Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Center for Economic Behavior and Inequality (CEBI), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.



Type 1 diabetes has been associated with cardiovascular disease and late complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between type 1 diabetes and school performance in children.


To compare standardized reading and mathematics test scores of schoolchildren with type 1 diabetes vs those without diabetes.

Design, Setting, and Participants:

Population-based retrospective cohort study from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015 (end date of follow-up), including Danish public schoolchildren attending grades 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8. Test scores were obtained in math (n = 524 764) and reading (n = 1 037 006). Linear regression models compared outcomes with and without adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics.


Type 1 diabetes.

Main Outcomes and Measures:

Primary outcomes were pooled test scores in math and reading (range, 1-100).


Among 631 620 included public schoolchildren, the mean (SD) age was 10.31 (SD, 2.42) years, and 51% were male; 2031 had a confirmed diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Overall, the mean combined score in math and reading was 56.11 (SD, 24.93). There were no significant differences in test scores found between children with type 1 diabetes (mean, 56.56) and children without diabetes (mean, 56.11; difference, 0.45 [95% CI, -0.31 to 1.22]). The estimated difference in test scores between children with and without type 1 diabetes from a linear regression model with adjustment for grade, test topic, and year was 0.24 (95% CI, -0.90 to 1.39) and 0.45 (95% CI, -0.58 to 1.49) with additional adjustment for socioeconomic status.

Conclusions and Relevance:

Among Danish public schoolchildren, there was no significant difference in standardized reading and mathematics test scores of children with type 1 diabetes compared with test scores of children without diabetes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center