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J Agric Food Chem. 2019 Feb 20;67(7):2066-2074. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b06493. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

An Intelligent Film Based on Cassia Gum Containing Bromothymol Blue-Anchored Cellulose Fibers for Real-Time Detection of Meat Freshness.

Cao L1,2, Sun G1,2, Zhang C1, Liu W1, Li J1,2, Wang L1,2.

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Key Laboratory of Bio-based Materials Science and Technology of Ministry of Education , Northeast Forestry University , 26th Hexing Road , Xiangfang District, Harbin 150040 , P. R. China.
Research Center of Wood Bionic Intelligent Science , Northeast Forestry University , 51th Hexing Road , Xiangfang District, Harbin 150040 , P. R. China.


To prepare intelligent cellulose fiber (ICF), cellulose fibers were modified by grafting hydroxypropyltriethylamine groups to which bromothymol blue (BTB) was anchored. The ICFs were incorporated into cassia gum (CG) to prepare a pH-sensitive intelligent film. The Fourier transform infrared results indicated that BTB has been introduced in the CG-ICF5 film. Scanning electronic microscopy indicated that the addition of ICF can loosen the structure of the film. The incorporation of ICF decreased light transmittance and water vapor permeability but did not significantly affect thermal stability. The mechanical properties were weakened with 3% ICF addition and were improved with 5% ICF addition. The release experiment indicated that 46.784% and 8.297% of BTB was released from the CG-ICF5 film under oscillating to 50% and 95% alcohol/water solution, respectively. The response of the intelligent films to triethylamine in environments with different relative humidities was investigated. A visible color change occurred in the triethylamine environment within 20 min. Pork and chicken spoilage experiments were performed to study the application of the intelligent film in monitoring meat freshness during spoilage. Obvious color changes appeared, demonstrating that the intelligent film has potential for use in real-time indication of meat spoilage.


bromothymol blue; cassia gum; cellulose fiber; intelligent film; meat freshness; triethylamine response

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