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J Clin Oncol. 2019 Feb 4:JCO2018784678. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2018.78.4678. [Epub ahead of print]

Neoplasm Risk Among Individuals With a Pathogenic Germline Variant in DICER1.

Author information

1
1 National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD.
2
2 Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
3
3 International Pleuropulmonary Blastoma/ DICER1 Registry, Minneapolis, MN.
4
4 Westat, Rockville, MD.
5
5 International Ovarian and Testicular Stromal Tumor Registry, Minneapolis, MN.
6
6 Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
7
7 Washington University, St. Louis, MO.
8
8 Children's National Health System, Washington, DC.
9
9 George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

DICER1 syndrome is an autosomal-dominant, pleiotropic tumor-predisposition disorder caused by pathogenic germline variants in DICER1. We sought to quantify risk, hazard rates, and the probability of neoplasm incidence accounting for competing risks ("cumulative incidence") of neoplasms (benign and malignant) and standardized incidence ratios for malignant tumors in individuals with DICER1 pathogenic variation.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

We combined data from three large cohorts of patients who carry germline pathogenic variation in DICER1. To reduce ascertainment bias, we distinguished probands from nonprobands. Neoplasm diagnoses were confirmed by review of pathology reports and/or central review of surgical pathology materials. Standardized cancer incidence ratios were determined relative to the SEER program, which does not capture all DICER1-associated neoplasms. For all malignancies and benign tumors ("neoplasms," excluding type Ir pleuropulmonary blastoma and thyroid nodules), we used the Kaplan-Meier method and nonparametric cumulative incidence curves to estimate neoplasm-free survival.

RESULTS:

We calculated the age at first neoplasm diagnosis (systematically ascertained cancers plus DICER1-associated neoplasms pleuropulmonary blastoma, cystic nephroma, and nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma) in 102 female and male nonproband DICER1 carriers. By age 10 years, 5.3% (95% CI, 0.6% to 9.7%) of nonproband DICER1 carriers had developed a neoplasm (females, 4.0%; males, 6.6%). By age 50 years, 19.3% (95% CI, 8.4% to 29.0%) of nonprobands had developed a neoplasm (females, 26.5%; males, 10.2%). After age 10 years, female risk was elevated compared with male risk. Standardized cancer incidence ratio analysis of 102 nonproband DICER1 carriers, which represented 3,344 person-years of observation, showed significant cancer excesses overall, particularly of gynecologic and thyroid cancers.

CONCLUSION:

This work provides the first quantitative analysis of site-specific neoplasm risk and excess malignancy risk in 102 systematically characterized nonproband DICER1 carriers. Our findings inform DICER1 syndrome phenotype, natural history, and genetic counseling.

PMID:
30715996
DOI:
10.1200/JCO.2018.78.4678

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