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Schizophr Bull. 2019 Feb 1;45(45 Suppl 1):S5-S23. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sby119.

Hallucinations in Children and Adolescents: An Updated Review and Practical Recommendations for Clinicians.

Author information

1
Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
2
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
3
De Bascule, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
4
School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.
5
Research & Development Department, Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Hove, UK.
6
Department of Psychology, Durham University, Durham, UK.
7
Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
8
Developmental Clinical Psychology Research Unit, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
9
Developmental NeuroImaging and Psychopathology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University of Geneva School of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.
10
Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK.
11
Univ Lille, CNRS UMR-9193, SCALab (PsyCHIC Team) & CHU Lille, CURE Platform, Fontan Hospital, Lille, France.
12
Department of Psychiatry, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
13
Division of Psychiatry, Clinical Psychology and Rehabilitation, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
14
Centre for Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, Australia.
15
Metro North Mental Health, Herston, Australia.
16
Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, Wacol, Australia.
17
Psychotic Disorders Division, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA.
18
Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
19
University of Groningen, Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, Groningen, the Netherlands.
20
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center for Psychiatry, Rob Giel Research center, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Abstract

Hallucinations in children and adolescents are now known to occur on a continuum from healthy to psychopathology-related phenomena. Although hallucinations in young populations are mostly transient, they can cause substantial distress. Despite hallucinations being widely investigated, research so far has had limited implications for clinical practice. The present article has 3 main aims: (1) to review research findings since 2014 (when the last major review of the area was published); (2) to present assessment tools validated to measure hallucinations in children and adolescents; and (3) to discuss therapeutic strategies and clinical issues. We conclude by presenting a tailored care model for clinicians and outline future challenges for research.

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