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Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2019 Jun;34(6):790-806. doi: 10.1002/gps.5070. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Depression in carers of people with dementia from a minority ethnic background: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of psychosocial interventions.

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Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
South London & Maudsley Trust, London, UK.



Systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of interventions in reducing depressive symptoms in ethnic minority carers of people with dementia.


We systematically searched EMBASE, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Sociological Abstracts and Social Policy and Practices databases from 1990 to 2015, supplemented by a grey literature search, hand searches of bibliographies, and contacting authors. Study quality was assessed independently by two researchers using The Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool, with an inter-rater reliability of Cohen's kappa of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.42-1.01). Narrative synthesis and meta-analysis were used to assess intervention effectiveness. Meta-regression was used to assess whether factors such as intervention type, peer support, and ethnicity accounted for hetereogeneity.


Thirteen studies were eligible for inclusion, with 1076 participants in control groups and 980 participants in intervention groups; 12 studies provided estimates for meta-analysis. All studies were from the United States. Interventions were associated with an overall mean reduction in depression in caregivers (SMD -0.17 (95% CI, -0.29 to -0.05; P = 0.005). Meta-regression did not indicate any potential sources of heterogeneity, although narrative synthesis suggested that interventions developed with the target ethnic minority group's preferred mode of engagement in mind alongside cultural adaptations may have enhanced effectiveness.


Psychosocial interventions for depression in ethnic minority carers of people with dementia are effective and could be enhanced through cultural adaptations. High-quality studies targeting minority ethnic groups outside of the United States are needed.


RCTs; carer/caregiver; dementia; depression; ethnic minority; race; randomised controlled trials

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