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Med Gas Res. 2019 Jan 9;8(4):129-134. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.248262. eCollection 2018 Oct-Dec.

A survey of anaphylaxis etiology and treatment.

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Child Health Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Department of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Allergy Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.


Identifying the causes of anaphylaxis which is an acute, potentially fatal systemic reaction is very important in every community. Treatment strategies and pitfalls should also be determined. We sought to determine the most common triggers of anaphylaxis, clinical manifestations and treatment strategies in Mashhad, northeast of Iran. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate all patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction who were referred to University Allergy Clinics between 2006 and 2016 in Mashhad Iran. We used a combination of patient's clinical history and allergy diagnostic testing including radioallergosorbant test and skin prick test in order to determine the etiology of anaphylaxis. We identified 172 anaphylactic reactions in 70 patients. Median age was 15 years with a range from 6 months to 48 years. The triggers included: foods, 61.4%; drugs, 15.7%; hymenoptera venom, 8.6%; idiopathic, 5.7%; immunotherapy, 4.3% and other etiologies: 5.7%. Nuts and seeds were the most important triggers of food induced anaphylaxis, especially in school children, adolescents and young adults, followed by fruits. However, Cow's milk and hen's egg were the main triggers of anaphylaxis in children aged under 2 years. The most common symptoms were cutaneous and cardiovascular. Corticosteroids (94.3%) and/or antihistamines (85.7%) were used most frequently for treatment followed by intravenous fluids (54.3%), whereas epinephrine was only used in 17.1% of the cases. Food related anaphylaxis and other typical triggers of anaphylaxis are age dependent and the risks and triggers change with age. Epinephrine injection should be increased by improving the awareness of physician and medical teams. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (approved number: IR.MUMS.REC.1393.960).


allergy; anaphylaxis; corticosteroid; epinephrine; etiology; survey; treatment

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