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J Cell Mol Med. 2019 Apr;23(4):2343-2350. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.14195. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

The role of intestinal microbiota in cardiovascular disease.

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Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.


Accumulating evidence has indicated that intestinal microbiota is involved in the development of various human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In the recent years, both human and animal experiments have revealed that alterations in the composition and function of intestinal flora, recognized as gut microflora dysbiosis, can accelerate the progression of CVDs. Moreover, intestinal flora metabolizes the diet ingested by the host into a series of metabolites, including trimethylamine N-oxide, short chain fatty acids, secondary bile acid and indoxyl sulfate, which affects the host physiological processes by activation of numerous signalling pathways. The aim of this review was to summarize the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of CVDs, including coronary artery disease, hypertension and heart failure, which may provide valuable insights into potential therapeutic strategies for CVD that involve interfering with the composition, function and metabolites of the intestinal flora.


coronary artery disease; heart failure; hypertension; intestinal microbiota

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