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Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2019 Mar;48(1):165-182. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2018.09.012. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Nonceliac Wheat Sensitivity: An Immune-Mediated Condition with Systemic Manifestations.

Author information

1
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Via Zamboni, 33, Bologna BO 40126, Italy.
2
Department of Medical Sciences, Nuovo Arcispedale St. Anna in Cona, University of Ferrara, Via Savonarola, 9, Ferrara FE 44121, Italy.
3
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Via Zamboni, 33, Bologna BO 40126, Italy; Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Building 114 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.
4
Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, 1130 Saint Nicholas Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA; Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, 180 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA.
5
Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, 1130 Saint Nicholas Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA; Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, 180 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY 10032, USA; Institute of Human Nutrition, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168(th) Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address: aa819@columbia.edu.

Abstract

Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) is characterized by gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms following the ingestion of gluten-containing cereals in subjects without celiac disease or wheat allergy. The identity of the molecular triggers in these cereals responsible for the symptoms of NCWS remains to be delineated. Recent research has identified a biological basis for the condition, with the observation of systemic immune activation in response to microbial translocation that appears to be linked to intestinal barrier defects. Ongoing research efforts are aimed at further characterizing the etiology, mechanism, and biomarkers of the condition.

KEYWORDS:

Amylase/protease inhibitor; Antibody to native gliadin; Biomarkers; Fructan; Gluten; Intestinal barrier function; Systemic immune activation; Wheat

PMID:
30711208
PMCID:
PMC6364564
[Available on 2020-03-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.gtc.2018.09.012

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