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Int J Biol Macromol. 2019 May 15;129:827-843. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.01.192. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS): An overview.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu Province, PR China; Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing 211198, Jiangsu Province, PR China; Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan.
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, China Pharmaceutical University, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province, PR China.
3
Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan; School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu Province, PR China.
4
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province, PR China.
5
State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Sciences, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu Province, PR China.
6
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing 211198, Jiangsu Province, PR China.
7
Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan; Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Lahore 54770, Punjab Province, Pakistan.
8
School of Life Sciences, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, PR China.
9
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
10
Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, Jiangsu Province, PR China.
11
Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan.
12
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu Province, PR China; Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu Province, PR China. Electronic address: qigangzhou@njmu.edu.cn.

Abstract

The frequently studied polysaccharide, chitosan oligosaccharide/chitooligosaccharide (COS) is the major degradation product of chitosan/chitin via chemical hydrolysis or enzymatic degradation involving deacetylation and depolymerization processes. Innumerable studies have revealed in the recent decade that COS has various promising biomedical implications in the past analysis, current developments and potential applications in a biomedical, pharmaceutical and agricultural sector. Innovations into COS derivatization has broadened its application in cosmeceutical and nutraceutical productions as well as in water treatment and environmental safety. In relation to its parent biomaterials and other available polysaccharides, COS has low molecular weight (Mw), higher degree of deacetylation (DD), higher degree of polymerization (DP), less viscous and complete water solubility, which endowed it with significant biological properties like antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive, as well as drug/DNA delivery ability. In addition, it is also revealed to exhibit antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-HIV-1, anti-Alzheimer's disease, hypocholesterolemic, calcium absorption and hemostatic effects. Furthermore, COS is shown to have higher cellular transduction and completely absorbable via intestinal epithelium due to its cationic sphere exposed on the more exposed shorter N-glucosamine (N-Glc) units. This paper narrates the recent developments in COS biomedical applications while paying considerable attention to its physicochemical properties and its chemical composition. Its pharmacokinetic aspects are also briefly discussed while highlighting potential overdose or lethal dosing. In addition, due to its multiple NGlc unit composition and vulnerability to degradation, its safety is given significant attention. Finally, a suggestion is made for extensive study on COS anti-HIV effects with well-refined batches.

KEYWORDS:

Biotransformation; Chitin; Chitobiose; Chitosan; Chitotriose; Degree of deacetylation; Degree of polymerization; Molecular weight; N-glucosamine; Pattern of ionization; Physicochemical and biological properties; Safety and impurity profile

PMID:
30708011
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.01.192
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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