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Pharm Biol. 2019 Dec;57(1):65-73. doi: 10.1080/13880209.2018.1557698.

GABA and l-theanine mixture decreases sleep latency and improves NREM sleep.

Author information

1
a Department of Integrated Biomedical and Life Sciences , Graduate School, Korea University , Seoul , Republic of Korea.
2
b Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Sciences Program , Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville , Edwardsville , IL , USA.
3
c BK21 Plus , College of Health Science, Korea University , Seoul , Republic of Korea.
4
d Department of Public Health Sciences , Graduate School , Seoul , Republic of Korea.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and it is well established that activation of GABAA receptors favours sleep. l-Theanine, a naturally occurring amino acid first discovered in green tea, is a well-known anti-anxiety supplement with proven relaxation benefits.

OBJECTIVE:

This study investigated the potential synergistic sleep enhancement effect of GABA/l-theanine mixture.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Pentobarbital-induced sleep test was applied to find proper concentration for sleep-promoting effect in ICR mice. Electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis was performed to investigate total sleeping time and sleep quality in normal SD rats and caffeine-induced awareness model. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to investigate whether the sleep-promoting mechanism of GABA/l-theanine mixture involved transcriptional processes.

RESULTS:

GABA/l-theanine mixture (100/20 mg/kg) showed a decrease in sleep latency (20.7 and 14.9%) and an increase in sleep duration (87.3 and 26.8%) compared to GABA or theanine alone. GABA/l-theanine mixture led to a significant increase in rapid eye movement (REM) (99.6%) and non-REM (NREM) (20.6%) compared to controls. The use of GABA/l-theanine mixture rather than GABA or l-theanine alone restored to normal levels sleep time and quality in the arousal animal model. The administration of GABA/l-theanine led to increased expression of GABA and the glutamate GluN1 receptor subunit.

CONCLUSIONS:

GABA/l-theanine mixture has a positive synergistic effect on sleep quality and duration as compared to the GABA or l-theanine alone. The increase in GABA receptor and GluN1 expression is attributed to the potential neuromodulatory properties of GABA/l-theanine combination, which seems to affect sleep behaviour.

KEYWORDS:

electroencephalography; insomnia; pentobarbital-induced sleep test; γ-Aminobutyric acid

PMID:
30707852
PMCID:
PMC6366437
DOI:
10.1080/13880209.2018.1557698
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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