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Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2019 Jan-Mar;62(1):79-83. doi: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_30_18.

Video projected practical examination as an introduction to formative assessment tool for undergraduate examination in pathology.

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Department of Pathology, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, New Delhi, India.
Department of Surgery, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, New Delhi, India.



Assessment of the medical students includes theory as well as practical assessment. Traditional practical examination in pathology which includes viva and spots is now increasingly being questioned because of their inherent lack of validity and reliability, time consumption, and human resource requirement. Therefore, a need was felt for another form of practical examination which can be used as formative assessment, and if found feasible, can be employed in summative assessment too.


The aim of the study was to develop and implement a new method of video projected practical examination (VPPE) as a formative assessment tool for MBBS second professional students so as to improve their learning and academic performance in practical pathology and also to obtain students' perception regarding the effectiveness of VPPE.


The study was carried out with the MBBS second professional students before their end-of-semester examination in the Department of Pathology. In this new method, slide video projection was used as a formative assessment tool during practical examination. Students were randomly divided into two groups. Group I was subjected to VPPE, while simultaneously conventional practical examination was held for Group II. Assessment results of VPPE were compared with conventional practical examination. Faculty and students feedback was also taken at the end of the examination.


Mean marks of the students who undertook VPPE was higher than those who gave conventional practical examination. Majority (95.3%) of the students agreed that VPPE is better than conventional practical examination. Most of the faculty members also felt that it is a more valid and reliable assessment tool.


Introducing VPPE as a formative assessment tool in practical pathology enhanced their learning and academic performance. Opinion of examiners and students also showed that VPPE has several advantages over conventional practical examination.


Formative assessment; practical pathology; video projected practical examination

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