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Cureus. 2018 Nov 20;10(11):e3617. doi: 10.7759/cureus.3617.

Diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidosis Based on History and Clinical Features: Evidence from the Bajio Region of Mexico.

Author information

1
Orthopaedics, Hospital Regional De Alta Especialidad Del Bajio, Leon, MEX.
2
Orthopaedics, Hospital General De Leon, Leon, MEX.
3
Orthopaedics, Hospital De Especialidades Pediatricas De Leon, Leon, MEX.
4
Orthopedics, Hospital General De Leon, Leon, MEX.
5
Pediatrics, Hospital General De San Luis De La Paz, San Luis de La Paz, MEX.

Abstract

Introduction Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are infrequent deposit diseases; generally, the diagnosis is delayed until symptoms appear. Age or presentation is related to the severity of the disease. A substantial number of patients are misdiagnosed since they describe nonspecific initial symptoms and signs in common. The aim of this study is to describe the common characteristics of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis already diagnosed, treated in hospitals of the Guanajuato Health System, with a special focus on early manifestations in order to review early clinical suspect manifestations. Methods A multicenter, descriptive, observational study was conducted to evaluate the cases of mucopolysaccharidosis treated and diagnosed. The study was carried out in the Pediatric departments of five big important hospitals of Bajio Mexico region in the period from February to August 2016. Results Eighteen patients were identified, 13 men and five women, with an average age of 8.6 years. The most frequent mucopolysaccharidosis was type IV A (Morquio) in seven patients, followed by type I (Hurler) in four patients, three patients for type III (San Filippo), two patients for type II (Hunter), and two patients for type VI (Maroteaux-Lamie). The commonest clinical manifestations at diagnosis were dimorphism, triangular dorsal hump, skeletal alterations (genu valgus, short stature, and flat feet), and a limited range of movement in the major joints. Non-skeletal manifestations, such as an umbilical/inguinal hernia and hepato-splenomegaly, were very frequent. In a majority of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis, the radiological data of the disease were found: they were most severe in type IV and type VI, mild in type I and II, and none in MPS III. A diagnosis was made in all patients by a clinical and radiological evaluation and confirmed by an enzymatic study. Conclusions In all rare diseases, a suspicion diagnosis is based on subtle characteristics that manifest themselves in a few different organs and systems may be mild. Suspicion by the physician and the need to strengthen collaboration patterns between different specialities play an important role in the early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

KEYWORDS:

diagnosis; dwarfism; lysosomal disease; mexico; mucopolysaccharidosis; orphan disease; short stature

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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