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World J Gastrointest Surg. 2019 Jan 27;11(1):1-10. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v11.i1.1.

Up-to-date intraoperative computer assisted solutions for liver surgery.

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Surgical Oncology, OLYMPION General Clinic of Patras, Patras 26442, Greece.
Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Patras, Patras 26500, Greece.


Computer assisted surgical planning allowed for a better selection of patients, evaluation of operative strategy, appropriate volumetric measurements, identification of anatomical risks, definition of tumour resection margins and choice of surgical approach in liver oncologic resections and living donor liver transplantations. Although preoperative computer surgical analysis has been widely used in daily clinical practice, intraoperative computer assisted solutions for risk analysis and navigation in liver surgery are not widely available or still under clinical evaluation. Computer science technology can efficiently assist modern surgeons during complex liver operations, mainly by providing image guidance with individualized 2D images and 3D models of the various anatomical and pathological structures of interest. Intraoperative computer assisted liver surgery is particularly useful in complex parenchyma-sparing hepatectomies, for intraoperative risk analysis and for the effective treatment of colorectal metastases after neoadjuvant therapy or when they are multiple. In laparoscopic liver surgery, intraoperative computer aid is definitively more important as, apart from a restricted field of view, there is also loss of the fine haptic feedback. Intraoperative computer assisted developments face challenges that prevent their application in daily clinical practice. There is a vast variety of studies regarding intraoperative computer assisted liver surgery but there are no clear objective measurements in order to compare them and select the most effective solutions. An overview of up-to-date intraoperative computer assisted solutions for liver surgery will be discussed.


3D models; Augmented reality; Computer assisted surgery; Hepatectomy; Hepatic surgery; Image guidance; Intraoperative; Liver; Navigation

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Conflict-of-interest statement: There is no conflict of interest associated with any of the senior author or other co-authors contributed their efforts in this manuscript.

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