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Int J Nanomedicine. 2019 Jan 18;14:733-751. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S187664. eCollection 2019.

Enhanced bone regeneration of the silk fibroin electrospun scaffolds through the modification of the graphene oxide functionalized by BMP-2 peptide.

Wu J1,2, Zheng A1,2, Liu Y3, Jiao D1,2, Zeng D1,2, Wang X1,2, Cao L1,2, Jiang X1,2.

Author information

1
Department of Prosthodontics, Oral Bioengineering and Regenerative Medicine Lab, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China, linya.lingyancao@gmail.com; xinquanj@aliyun.com.
2
Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Advanced Dental Technology and Materials, Shanghai 200011, China, linya.lingyancao@gmail.com; xinquanj@aliyun.com.
3
The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

Abstract

Introduction:

Bone tissue engineering has become one of the most effective methods to treat bone defects. Silk fibroin (SF) is a natural protein with no physiological activities, which has features such as good biocompatibility and easy processing and causes minimal inflammatory reactions in the body. Scaffolds prepared by electrospinning SF can be used in bone tissue regeneration and repair. Graphene oxide (GO) is rich in functional groups, has good biocompatibility, and promotes osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, while bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) polypeptide has an advantage in promoting osteogenesis induction. In this study, we attempted to graft BMP-2 polypeptide onto GO and then bonded the functionalized GO onto SF electrospun scaffolds through electrostatic interactions. The main purpose of this study was to further improve the biocompatibility of SF electrospun scaffolds, which could promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and the repair of bone tissue defects.

Materials and methods:

The successful synthesis of GO and functionalized GO was confirmed by transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, mechanical test, and degradation experiment confirmed the preparation of SF electrospun scaffolds and the immobilization of GO on the fibers. In vitro experiment was used to verify the biocompatibility of the composite scaffolds, and in vivo experiment was used to prove the repairing ability of the composite scaffolds for bone defects.

Results:

We successfully fabricated the composite scaffolds, which enhanced biocompatibility, not only promoting cell adhesion and proliferation but also greatly enhancing in vitro osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells using either an osteogenic or non-osteogenic medium. Furthermore, transplantation of the composite scaffolds significantly promoted in vivo bone formation in critical-sized calvarial bone defects.

Conclusion:

These findings suggested that the incorporation of BMP-2 polypeptide-functionalized GO into chitosan-coated SF electrospun scaffolds was a viable strategy for fabricating excellent scaffolds that enhance the regeneration of bone defects.

KEYWORDS:

bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; bone morphogenetic protein-2; bone regeneration; electrospinning scaffold; graphene oxide; osteogenic differentiation; peptide; silk fibroin

PMID:
30705589
PMCID:
PMC6342216
DOI:
10.2147/IJN.S187664
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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