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Clin Nutr. 2019 Jan 17. pii: S0261-5614(19)30008-1. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2019.01.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Vitamin B complex supplementation as a homocysteine-lowering therapy for early stage diabetic nephropathy in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial.

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Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:
Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahram Canadian University, Cairo, Egypt.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.



Homocysteine levels are elevated in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and could induce renal injury. B vitamins have an important role in preventing microvascular complications of diabetes.


We performed a randomized-controlled trial of oral supplementation with vitamin B complex as an adjuvant therapy for nephropathy in pediatric T1DM patients and assessed its relation to homocysteine and cystatin C as a marker of nephropathy.


This trial included 80 T1DM patients with microalbuminuria, despite oral angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, aged 12-18 years with at least 5 years disease duration and HbA1c ≤8.5%. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups; intervention group which received oral vitamin B complex (B1, B6 and B12) once daily and placebo group. Both groups were followed-up for 12 weeks with assessment of plasma homocysteine, HbA1c, urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and cystatin C.


Both groups were well-matched in baseline clinical and laboratory parameters. Baseline homocysteine levels were elevated in both groups compared with reference control values. After 12 weeks, supplementation with vitamin B complex for the intervention group resulted in a significant decrease of homocysteine, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, total cholesterol, UAE and cystatin C compared with baseline levels (p < 0.001) and with placebo group (p < 0.001). No adverse reactions were reported. Baseline cystatin C was negatively correlated to vitamin B12 (r = -0.77, p = 0.001).


Vitamin B complex improved glycemic control and renal function through decreasing homocysteine and could be a safe and effective strategy for treatment of early stage nephropathy in pediatric T1DM. This trial was registered at (NCT03594240).


Cystatin C; Diabetic nephropathy; Homocysteine; Type 1 diabetes; Vitamin B complex


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