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Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2019 Jan 29;134:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2019.01.021. [Epub ahead of print]

Diversification of bent-toed geckos (Cyrtodactylus) on Sumatra and west Java.

Author information

1
Department of Vertebrate Zoology and Global Genome Initiative, Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC 20560, USA; Department of Biology and the Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Research Center, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA. Electronic address: oconnellk@si.edu.
2
Department of Biology and the Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Research Center, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA; Center for Human Identification, University of North Texas - Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA.
3
Research and Development Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI), Widyasatwaloka Building, Cibinong 16911, West Java, Indonesia.
4
Department of Biology, Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia.
5
Department of Biology and the Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Research Center, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA.

Abstract

Complex geological processes often drive biotic diversification on islands. The islands of Sumatra and Java have experienced dramatic historical changes, including isolation by marine incursions followed by periodic connectivity with the rest of Sundaland across highland connections. To determine how this geological history influenced island invasions, we investigated the colonization history and diversification of bent-toed geckos (genus Cyrtodactylus) on Sumatra and west Java. We used mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to explore species boundaries, estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times, and to reconstruct ancestral range evolution. We found that Sumatran and Javan Cyrtodactylus were closely related to species from the Thai-Malay Peninsula, rather than from Borneo, and that Cyrtodactylus most likely dispersed to Sumatra three times during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. Similarly, Cyrtodactylus invaded west Java from Sumatra once in the early Miocene. Our results suggest that despite isolation by marine incursions during much of the Miocene, Cyrtodactylus dispersed to and from Sumatra and west Java likely via land bridges, and that in situ diversification occurred several times on Sumatra.

KEYWORDS:

Dispersal; Diversification; Geckos; Island biogeography; Java; Sumatra

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