Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2019 Jan 30;14(1):e0208902. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208902. eCollection 2019.

Identification and characterization of nonpolio enterovirus associated with nonpolio-acute flaccid paralysis in polio endemic state of Uttar Pradesh, Northern India.

Author information

Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India.
Department of Biochemistry, All Indian Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, India.


Despite polio eradication, nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) detection amid polio surveillance, which is considered to have implications in paralysis, requires attention. The attributes of NPEV infections in nonpolio-AFP (NPAFP) cases from Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, remain undetermined and are thus investigated. A total of 1839 stool samples collected from patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) from UP, India, between January 2010 and October 2011 were analyzed as per the WHO algorithm. A total of 359 NPAFP cases yielded NPEVs, which were subjected to microneutralization assay, partial VP1 gene-based molecular serotyping and phylogenetic analysis. Demographic and clinical-epidemiological features were also ascertained. Echoviruses (29%) and Coxsackievirus (CV)-B (17%) were the most common viruses identified by the microneutralization assay. The molecular genotyping characterized the NPEVs into 34 different serotypes, corresponding to Enterovirus (EV)-A (1.6%), EV-B (94%) and EV-C (5.3%) species. The rarely described EV serotypes, such as EV-C95, CV-A20, EV-C105, EV-B75, EV-B101, and EV-B107, were also identified. NPEV-associated AFP was more prevalent in younger male children, peaked in the monsoon months and was predominantly found in the central part of the state. The NPEV strains isolated in the study exhibited genetic diversity from those isolated in other countries. These form part of a different cluster or subcluster existing in cocirculation, limited to India only. This study augments the understanding of epidemiological features and demonstrates the extensive diversity exhibited by the NPEV strains in NPAFP cases from the polio-endemic region. It also underscores the need or effective long-term strategies to monitor NPEV circulation and its associated health risks in the post-polio eradication era.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center