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J Med Microbiol. 2019 Jan 30. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000933. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevalence and genetic characterization of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among dogs and cats in an animal shelter.

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1​Division of Microbiology, Osaka Institute of Public Health, 8-34, Tojo-cho, Tennoji-ku, Osaka 543-0026, Japan.
2​Osaka Municipal Animal Care and Control Center, 2-5-74, Shibatani, Suminoe-ku, Osaka 559-0021, Japan.



The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, especially cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, is a major concern for human and animal health. We investigated the prevalence of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among sheltered dogs and cats with various backgrounds.


Faecal samples or rectal swabs were collected from 151 dogs and 182 cats, and screened for the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Isolates were characterized phenotypically and genotypically by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multi-locus sequence typing and phylogenetic grouping. The animal attributes related to bacterial carriage were statistically analysed.


Cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was detected in 22 dogs (14.6%) and 20 cats (11.0%): 21 were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, 20 were AmpC-producing, and 1 was both ESBL- and AmpC-producing. Their β-lactamase genes were varied and associated with humans, animals or other origins. The genes CTX-M-14 (n=9) and CMY-2 (n=9) were dominant, but CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-8, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-24, CTX-M-27, CTX-M-55 and DHA-1 genes were also detected. Genotyping of isolates revealed that β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae had high genetic diversity. Relationships between animals harbouring cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and individual attributes, such as sex and nutrition type, were detected, but there was no correlation between history of human association and the presence of the bacterium in either dogs or cats.


We found several types of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae distributed among companion animals with a range of individual attributes and histories in Osaka, Japan. Companion animals may play a bridging role in the circulation of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from humans and from other origins.


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