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Molecules. 2019 Jan 28;24(3). pii: E458. doi: 10.3390/molecules24030458.

Betanin, a Natural Food Additive: Stability, Bioavailability, Antioxidant and Preservative Ability Assessments.

Author information

1
Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. daviufrj@outlook.com.
2
Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. diegobaiao20@hotmail.com.
3
Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. silvafo@live.com.
4
Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. geniltonalves@gmail.com.
5
Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. perrone@iq.ufrj.br.
6
Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. emda@iq.ufrj.br.
7
Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. paschv@iq.ufrj.br.

Abstract

Betanin is the only betalain approved for use in food and pharmaceutical products as a natural red colorant. However, the antioxidant power and health-promoting properties of this pigment have been disregarded, perhaps due to the difficulty in obtaining a stable chemical compound, which impairs its absorption and metabolism evaluation. Herein, betanin was purified by semi-preparative HPLC-LC/MS and identified by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS as the pseudomolecular ion m/z 551.16. Betanin showed significant stability up to -30 °C and mild stability at chilling temperature. The stability and antioxidant ability of this compound were assessed during a human digestion simulation and ex vivo colon fermentation. Half of the betanin amount was recovered in the small intestine digestive fluid and no traces were found after colon fermentation. Betanin high antioxidant ability was retained even after simulated small intestine digestion. Betanin, besides displaying an inherent colorant capacity, was equally effective as a natural antioxidant displaying peroxy-radical scavenger ability in pork meat. Betanin should be considered a multi-functional molecule able to confer an attractive color to frozen or refrigerated foods, but with the capacity to avoid lipid oxidation, thereby preserving food quality. Long-term supplementation by beetroot, a rich source of betanin, should be stimulated to protect organisms against oxidative stress.

KEYWORDS:

antioxidant ability; beetroot; betalains; ex vivo colon fermentation; in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion; malonildialdehyde; semi-preparative RP-HPLC

PMID:
30696032
DOI:
10.3390/molecules24030458
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